Knee, Ankle, and Foot

The decrease extremity has a prime influence on your capability to move within your world. A series of transferring hyperlinks (hip, knee and ankle joints) work cooperatively in dynamic and static states. This capability affords us the different to proficiently move, create and pursue our passion in life. An notion of these articulations, muscle groups, […]

Knee, Ankle, and Foot

The decrease extremity has a prime influence on your capability to move within your world. A series of transferring hyperlinks (hip, knee and ankle joints) work cooperatively in dynamic and static states. This capability affords us the different to proficiently move, create and pursue our passion in life. An notion of these articulations, muscle groups, joints and their biomechanics may well presumably per chance just soundless lend a hand in sustaining our quest to pause wholesome and active!

In fact just correct sensory receptors in the physique (muscle groups, tendons ligaments and joints) accumulate a proprioceptive function, which procedure they relay positional or spatial consciousness to your mind in insist to indulge in just correct steadiness. Here is performed thru a fixed slide of recordsdata flowing from our physique into our spine and up into our mind. Neuropathways, or somatic sensory circuits, discover a sense of self as we move our physique ingredients thru condominium and time.


The knee joint is the perfect, most advanced joint in the physique designed for steadiness. It is far a modified “hinge” joint that flexes and extends with very little rotation or twisting. Stability relies on a posh community of thick, strong ligaments in and out of doors the joint. Mobility must exist above and beneath the knee joint in the hip and ankle joint. If the hips are tight and stiff, the knee joint is vulnerable to excessive circulation that can discover set on and trudge. The patella (on occasion called the knee cap) is the perfect “sesamoid” bone in the physique and glides between the two round surfaces on the femur bone with knee flexion / extension. On high of the tibia bone sits two shock-animated pads, known as the menisci, which lend a hand to deepen the knee joint floor space in a figure-eight-be pleased sample. This meniscus sample shares connections with the cruciate ligaments and assists in guiding the shrimp amount of rotation in the knee.

The foot and ankle are key focal gains of toughen for total physique weight forces. On every day basis we suffer concentrated forces of stress thru the ankle, which acts as a shock absorber and distributes these forces into the foot. The ankle joint consists of two main hinge-model joints, the talocrural and subtalar joints. While just correct and in gravity, these joints are continually adapting to the lodging main to face, move, drag or soar. The fibula and tibia bones from above, and the talus bone from beneath, agree with the talocrural joint, which is a hinge joint. The talus and calcaneus manufacture up the subtalar joint. These advanced movements in the human physique require intricate and refined relationships ruled by neuromuscular reflexes, offered by our nerves, spinal cord, and mind.


Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL): A superficial, long and flat ligament between the medial epicondyle of the femur and the tibia (4 – 7 cm); stabilizes the interior of the knee joint; resists excessive exterior rotation and abduction.

Medial Capsular Ligament (MCL): Deep, thick, and attaches to the medial meniscus; shares fibers of the joint tablet; resists inward or valgus stress and medial rotation; Stabilizes anterior-posterior circulation helping the anterior cruciate ligament.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): A sturdy cord-be pleased ligament attaching from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the extinguish or qualified head of the fibula; does no longer set to the meniscus; resists outward or exterior rotation of the femur on the tibia; no longer injured as noteworthy because the MCL attributable to its lack of meniscal attachment.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL): A sturdy intra-articular ligament that runs front-to-aid (anterior to posterior); fibers are taut with straight leg; prevents the femur from transferring backwards or posteriorly on the tibia.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL): An intra-articular ligament that attaches aid-to-front (posterior to anterior); prevents ahead circulation of the tibia relative to the femur and interior rotation of the tibia

Patellar Ligament: In style tendon of quadriceps muscle inserts on tibial tuberosity

Muscle tissues

Quadriceps: One of the best muscle tissue in the physique: Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius. Its action is extension of the knee, flexion of hip (Rectus Femoris perfect), and tracking of Patella (Vastus Lateralis and Medialis)

Sartorius: A flexor and exterior rotator of hip joint and flexor of knee joint, and the longest muscle in the physique

Hamstrings: Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus & Biceps Femoris. Its action is flexion of the knee, extension of hip, deceleration of leg, steadiness capabilities with knee extension

Popliteus: Dinky muscle that flexes the tibia and rotates it medially

Iliotibial (IT) Band: Tendinous extension of the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus maximus Gastrocnemius. The 2 heads (lateral and medial) insert above knee; total tendon (Achilles) insets on the calcaneus; influences knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion.

Fluctuate of Circulation

Standing with both toes on the bottom (Closed Kinetic Chain) with a straight or “locked knee” creates zero degrees of flexion attributable to ligaments, meniscus and joint tablet being tight and at most rigidity. Because the knee moves into flexion, the knee “unlocks” and the femoral head and lateral condyle externally rotate just a bit and the medial condyle glides or translates in the predominant 15-20 degrees. Rotational circulation is perfect between 45-90 of knee flexion. Knee flexion (120-150 degrees) and extension or hyperextension (5-10 degrees).


Medial Collateral or “Deltoid” Ligament: A thick, strong triangular ligament on the medial side of ankle; from the medial malleolus above, it followers out and inserts on three ankle bones (navicular, calcaneus, talus)

Lateral collateral ligament: Three determined ligaments (calcaneofibular, anterior / posterior talofibular) and considerably weaker than its medial counterpart; inclined to ankle “inversion” sprains

Muscle tissues

Anterior Leg: Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Digitorium Longus, Extensor Hallucis Longus (Anterior Shin Splints)

Posterior Leg: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Flexor Hallucis Longus, (Posterior Shin Splints), Plantaris, Triceps Surae, Gastrocnemius (superficial and soleus / deep)

Lateral Leg: Peroneal Tertius, Peroneal Longus, Peroneal Brevis

Foot (Dorsal): Extensor Digitorum Brevis, Extensor Hallucis Brevis, Interossei

Foot (Plantar): Abductor Hallucis, Abductor Digiti Minimi, Flexor Digitorum Brevis, Quadratus Plantae, Lumbricles, Flexor Hallucis Brevis, Adductor Hallucis, Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis, Interossei

Fluctuate of Circulation

Talocrural Joint: Dorsiflexion (20-30 degrees); Plantarflexion (40-50 degrees)

Subtalar Joint: Supination or Inversion (20 degrees); Pronation or Eversion (10 degrees)

Ankle & Foot Arches

The three arches in the foot discover toughen with a suspension-be pleased capability. The talus bone is regarded because the “keystone” of toughen in the arch of the foot. It offers us recordsdata for our steadiness and posture. It permits us to move alongside with precision and energy when actions demand it. Strengthening the arches must happen over time and with notion of correct biomechanics. The three arches of the foot are: Medial Longitudinal Arch, Lateral Longitudinal Arch, Transverse Arch.

Squat Test

Form a squat 5-6 times with marvelous, just correct posture (looking out straight ahead, toes hip-width and parallel, the utilization of a postural grid in the background for reference. It is possible you’ll presumably well also catch a video or image (front and lateral views) to verify for the structural dysfunctions that would just occur beneath.

  1. Knees move inward of ankles. Honest or Left
  2. Interior arch of foot collapses (pronation / Inversion) Honest or Left
  3. Foot rotates laterally: Honest or Left
  4. Backbone flexes ahead / dowel angles ahead. Bigger than 30 degrees? Y / N
  5. Pelvis shifts or translates: Honest or Left
  6. Heels indulge in off floor: Yes / No
  7. Toes grip floor for steadiness: Yes / No

Key concerns while performing the squat:

  1. Knees may well presumably per chance just soundless align vertically above ankles
  2. Interior or medial arch must be maintained. If arch flattens or pronates, this is in a position to presumably per chance just stretch the tender tissues (plantar fascia / aponeurosis), main to plantar fascitis or achilles tendonitis
  3. Toes may well presumably per chance just soundless pause pointing straight ahead and never flare out
  4. Bad flexibility thru the ankle and hip joints creates imbalance posteriorly and the upper physique will counter-steadiness by leaning ahead respectively.
  5. Asymmetry thru weak injuries or unhappy postural habits over time causes the pelvis to shift laterally or side-to-side, compensating to indulge in steadiness
  6. Tight calf muscle groups restrict the ankle joint in dorsiflex (opinion # 4). When steadiness is compromised attributable to physique weight transferring ahead, intrinsic foot muscle groups want to work exhausting to face up to falling ahead and losing steadiness.